Crowdsourcing for language learning in Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of North Macedonia and Poland



crowdsourcing sites/tools/games, in- and outside class foreign language learning, contributing to crowdsourcing tools, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of North Macedonia, Poland


Online crowdsourcing sites/platforms have become popular in recent years, and the first aim of this study is to uncover what crowdsourcing resources language learners in Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of North Macedonia and Poland know about and use. The other two goals of the study are to uncover what crowdsourcing games or websites the students in the studied countries utilise as in- or/and outside-class activities, how enjoyable they find them and whether or not students contribute to the further development of those crowdsourcing resources. The data for the study were collected using a cross-culturally appropriate online questionnaire in English designed specifically for this study. The questionnaire comprised two parts. Section one gathered information about the employment of the crowdsourcing sites, tools, and games, while section two helped compile a detailed picture of the participants’ background. The data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitively, keeping in mind country and context-specific variables. The results show that there are both intriguing similarities and differences in the ways informants in the examined countries perceive, employ, evaluate and contribute to the available crowdsourcing resources when learning foreign languages. Therefore, the findings might provide insights for language teachers planning to incorporate crowdsourcing sites and crowdsourced activities in their classes as well as for platform/game creators aiming to develop resources with cross-cultural usefulness and validity.


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How to Cite

Miloshevska, L., Delibegović Džanić, N. ., Hatipoğlu, Çiler, & Gajek, E. (2021). Crowdsourcing for language learning in Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of North Macedonia and Poland. Journal of Narrative and Language Studies, 9(16), 106–121. Retrieved from