Cognitive Appraisal and Coping in Poetry

Authors

  • Roghayeh Farsi University of Neyshabur

Abstract

Emotion has recently been receiving special attention from cognitive psychologists, developing different methodologies and terms. Although poetry is most commonly associated with and expressive of emotions, few studies have attempted to apply cognitive psychology methods to poetry. Such an adventure has two benefits: the application evinces the pros and cons of the theoretical framework for literary appreciation. The new perspective it provides results into a more systematic and detailed literary interpretation. This paper investigates how appraisal and coping contribute to a fictional character’s cognition and understanding of his/her situation. It argues emotions are performatives and thereby analyzes the selected poems in this light. The selection is based on expressions of positive and negative emotions. The findings of the study show cognitive appraisal and coping have the potential to encompass extratextual factors like readers’ aesthetic appraisal of literary works.

References

Arnold, M. B. (1945). Physiological differentiation of emotional states. Psychological Review, 52(1), 35-48.

Arnold, M. B. (1960). Emotion and personality, two vols. Columbia University Press.

Arnold, M. B. (1968). The nature of emotion: Selected readings. Penguin.

Arnold, M. B. (1970a). Feelings and emotions: The Loyola symposium. Academic Press.

Arnold, M. B. (1970b). Brain functions in emotions: A phenomenological analysis. In P. Black (Ed.), Physiological correlates of emotion (pp. 261-285). Academic Press.

Aspinwall, L. G. (1998). Rethinking the role of positive affect in self-regulation. Motivation and Emotion, 22(1), 1-32.

Aspinwall, L. G. (2001). Dealing with adversity: Self-regulation, coping, adaptation, and health. In A. Tesser & N. Schwarz (Eds.), The Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Vol. 1. Intraindividual processes (pp. 591-614). Blackwell.

Axelrod, S. G., Roman, C., & Travisano, T. (Eds.) (2012). The new anthology of American poetry: Vol. Three, Postmodernisms: 1950-Present. Rutgers University Press.

Brandtstadter, J. (2006). Adaptive resources in later life: Tenacious goal pursuit and flexible goal adjustment. In M. Csikszentmihalyi, & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), A life worth living: Contributions to positive psychology (pp. 143-164). Oxford University Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., Preister, J. R., & Berntson, G. G. (1993). Rudimentary determinants of attitudes: II. Arm flexion and extension have differential effects on attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(1), 5-17.

Carver, C. S. (1998). Resilience and thriving: Issues, models, and linkages. Journal of Social Issues, 54(2), 245-266.

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1990). Origins and functions of positive and negative affect: A control-process view. Psychological Review, 97(1), 19-35.

Clore, G. L. (1994). Why emotions are felt. In P. Ekman & R. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions (pp. 103-111). Oxford University Press.

Davidson,R. J. (1993). The neuropsychology of emotion and affective style. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotion (pp. 143-154). Guilford.

Emmons, R. A. (2006). Spirituality: Recent progress. In M. Csikszentmihalyi, & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), A life worth living: Contributions to positive psychology (pp. 62-84). Oxford University Press.

Folkman, S. (1997). Positive psychological states and coping sever stress. Social Science Medicine, 45(8), 1207-1221.

Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2000). Positive affect and the other side of coping. American Psychologist, 55(6), 647-654.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well being. Prevention and

Treatment,3. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html.

Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, 19(3), 313-332.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2006). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. In M. Csikszentmihalyi, & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), A life worth living: Contributions to positive psychology (PP. 85-103). Oxford University Press.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2012). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), A life worth living: Contributions to positive psychology (pp. 85-103). Oxford University Press.

Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13(2), 172-175.

Fredrickson, B. L., & Levenson, R. W. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 12(2), 191-220.

Fredrickson, B. L., Mancuso, R. A., Branigan, C., & Tugade, M. (2000). The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motivation and Emotion, 24(4), 237-258.

Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge University Press.

Frijda, N. H. (1994). Emotions are functional, most of the time. In P. Ekman & R. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of emotions: Fundamental questions (pp.112-122). Oxford University Press.

Frijda, N. H., Kuipers, P., & Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(2), 212-228.

Frijda, N. H., Markam, S., Sato, K., & Wiers, R. (1995). Emotions and emotion words. In J. A. Russell, A. S. R. Manstead, J. C. Wellenkamp, & J. M. Fernandez-Dols (Eds.), Everyday conceptions of emotion, An introduction to the psychology, anthropology, and linguistics of emotion (pp. 121-143). Kluwer.

Goodenough, U. (1998). The sacred depths of nature. Oxford University Press.

Heckhausen, J, Dixon, R. A., & Baltes, B. P. (1989). Gains and Losses in Development throughout Adulthood as Perceived by Different Adult Age Groups. Developmental Psychology, 25(1), 109-121.

Isen, A. M. (1990). The influence of positive and negative affect on cognitive organization: Some implications for development. In N. Stein, B. Leventhal, & T. Trabasso (Eds.), Psychological and biological approaches to emotion (PP. 75-94). Erlbaum.

Johnson, K. J., Waugh, C. E., Wager, T., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2005). ‘Smile to See the Forest: Expressed Positive Emotions Broaden Attentional Scopes and Increase Attentional Flexibility’ (2005). See Barbara L. Fredrickson, ‘The Broaden-and-Build Theory’. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), A life worth living: Contributions to positive psychology (pp. 85-103).

Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. Oxford University Press.

Lazarus, R. S. (1993). From psychological stress to the emotions: A history of changing outlooks. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 1-22.

Lazarus, R. S., Averill, J. R., & Opton, E. M. Jr. (1970). Towards a cognitive theory of emotion. In M. B. Arnold (Ed.) Feelings and emotions: The Loyola symposium (pp. 207-232). Academic Press.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer.

Lazarus, R. S., Kanner, A. D., & Folkman, S. (1980). Emotions: A cognitive-phenomenological analysis. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Theories of emotion (189-217). Academic Press.

Leech, G. (1983). Principles of pragmatics. Longman.

Levenson, R. W. (1994). Human emotions: A functional view. In P. Ekman & R. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of emotions: Fundamental questions (pp. 123-126). Oxford University Press.

Leontiev, D. A. (2012). Personal meaning as the basis of motivational process. In D. A. Leotiev (Ed.), Motivation, consciousness and self-regulation (pp. 65-78). Nova Science Publishers.

Marvell, A. ‘To His Coy Mistress’, in War Poetry ˂www.warpoetry.co.uk/owen1.html˃ [accessed 2 June 2017].

Nafstad, P. (2001). Some aspect of the human emotions. The University of Tromso.

Owen, W. ‘Dulce et Decorum est’ in Poets . http://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem/his-coy-mistrss˃ [accessed 2 June 2017]?

Royce, J. R., & Powell, A. (1983). Theory of personality and individual differences. Prentice-Hall.

Roberts, R. C. (2003). Emotions: An essay in aid of moral psychology. Cambridge University Press.

Rothermund, K., & Brandtstadter, J. (2003). Age stereotypes and self-views in later life: Evaluating rival assumptions. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(6), 549-554.

Seligman, M. E. P., & Elder, G. (1986). Learned helplessness and life-span development. In. A. B. Sorensen, F. E. Weinert, & L. R. Sherrad (Eds.), Human development and the life course: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 377-428). Erlbaum.

Searle, J. (1976). A classification of illocutionary acts. Language in Society, 5(1), 1-23.

Snӕvarr, S. (2010). Metaphors, narratives, emotions: Their interplay and impact. Rodopi.

Strongman, K. T. (2003). The psychology of emotion: From everyday life to theory. Fifth edition. Wiley.

Taylor, C. (1985). Interpretation and the sciences of man. In Philosophy and the human sciences: Philosophical papers, Vol. 2. (pp. 15-57). Cambridge University Press.

Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1990). The past explains the present: Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology and Sociobiology, 11(4-5), 375-424.

Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2002). Positive emotions and emotional intelligence. In L. Feldman-Barrett & P. Salovey (Eds.), The wisdom of feelings: Psychological processes in emotional intelligence (pp. 319-340). Guilford.

Waugh, C. E., Hejmadi, A. Otake, K., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2005). ‘Cross Cultural Evidence for the Social Broadening Hypothesis’, (2005). See Barbara L. Fredrickson, ‘The Broaden-and-Build Theory’. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (2006). (Eds.), A life worth living: Contributions to positive psychology (pp. 85-103). Oxford University Press.

Downloads

Published

2021-12-30

How to Cite

Farsi, R. (2021). Cognitive Appraisal and Coping in Poetry. Journal of Narrative and Language Studies, 9(18), 339–356. Retrieved from https://nalans.com/index.php/nalans/article/view/266