The Emergence of English as a Lingua Digital Within Chaos/Complexity Theory Framework
Keywords:English as a Lingua Digital, Chaos/Complexity Theory, Language learning, COVID-19, coronavirus
English has now become a digital language with the rise of the digital age, especially with Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and now due to COVID-19. Individuals’ interaction with the digital beings such as front camera, social media, and keyboards has allowed new words to emerge or caused some changes in the existing words. Regarding these dynamic changes, Chaos/Complexity Theory brought to English language teaching (ELT) field by Diane Larsen-Freeman (1997) might provide explanations while shedding light on the construction or emergence of new words. In this article, Chaos/Complexity Theory is revisited first as a transdisciplinary theory and then along with its main features in language learning field. Then, English as a Lingua Digital is proposed as a new concept to be studied by future empirical studies. In this sense, this article is the first one proposing English as a Lingua Digital within Chaos/Complexity Theory. The ideas in this paper may be the leading topics ELT research in a very near future considering the fact that there are not enough empirical studies utilizing Chaos/Complexity Theory.
Alemi, M., Daftarifard, P., & Patrut, B. (2011). The implication of chaos/complexity theory into second language acquisition. Brain: Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2(2), 34–40.
Alfaro, D. (2020). Role of information and communication technology during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 30(4), 195-196.
Amerstorfer, C. M. (2020). The dynamism of strategic learning: Complexity theory in strategic L2 development. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 10(1), 21-44. doi:10.14746/ssllt.2020.10.1.2
Baranger, M. (2002). Chaos, complexity, and Entropy: A physics talk for non-physicists. Retrieved June 30, 2020 from http://necsi.org/projects/baranger/cce.pdf
CNN (1999). First mobile videophone introduced. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/TECH/ptech/9905/18/japan.phonetv/
Covidiot. (n.d.). In Macmillan Dictionary.com dictionary. Retrieved from https://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/covidiot
Covidiot. (n.d.). In OxfordLearnersDictionaries.com dictionary. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/covidiot
Defriend. (n.d.). In Dictionary.Cambridge.org dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/defriend
Duck Face. (n.d.). In Dictionary.Cambridge.org dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/duck-face
Elman, J. (2003). Development: It’s about time. Developmental Science, 6, 430–433.
Feed. (n.d.). In Dictionary.Cambridge.org dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/feed
Goh, P., & Sandars, J. (2020). A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic. AMEE Journal MedEdPublish, 9,(1), 1-8. doi:10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1
Hadidi Tamjid, N. (2008). Chaos/ complexity theory in second language acquisition. Novitas- Royal, 1(1), 10-17.
Halliday, M., & Burns, A. (2006). Applied linguistics: Thematic pursuits or disciplinary moorings? Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3, 113–128.
Hashamdar, M. (2012). First language acquisition: Is it compatible with chaos/complexity theory? Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(7), 1503-1507.
Hiver, P., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (2020). Motivation: It is a relational system. In A. H. Al-Hoorie & P. D. MacIntyre (Eds.), Comtemporary language motivation theory: 60 years since Gardner and Lambert (1959) (pp. n. d.). Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (1997). Chaos/complexity science and second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 18(2), 141-165
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2002). Language acquisition and language use from a chaos / complexity theory perspective. In C. Kramsch (Ed.), Language acquisition and socialization (pp. 33-46). London, UK: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2015). Complexity theory. In B. VanPatten, & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (pp. 227-244). New York, NY: Routledge.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2018). Looking ahead: Future directions in, and future research into, second language acquisition. Second Language Annals, 51, 55-72.
McAndrew, D. A. (1997). Chaos, complexity, and fuzziness: Science looks at teaching English. English Journal, 86(7), 37-43.
Nelson, C. (2011). The complexity of language learning. International Journal of Instruction, 4(2), 93-112.
NIMBY. (n.d.). In Dictionary.Cambridge.org dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/nimby?q=NIMBY
Reimers, F. M., & Schleicher, A. (2020). A framework to guide an education response to the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. OECD. Retrived from https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/library/a-framework-to-guide-an-education-response-to-the-covid-19-pandemic-of-2020
Safari, P., & Rashidi, N. (2015). Language learning as chaos/complexity system: Evidence based on Iranian EFL learners’ backgrounds. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry (TOJQI), 6(4), 22-56.
Sammut‐Bonnici, T. (2015). Complexity theory. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, 1–2. doi:10.1002/9781118785317.weom120210
Selfie. (n.d.). In Dictionary.Cambridge.org dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/selfie
Ting, D. S. W., Carin, L., Dzau, V., & Wong, T. Y. (2020). Digital technology and COVID-19. Nature Medicine, 26, 458–464.
TL:DR. (n.d.). In Dictionary.Cambridge.org dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/tldr?q=TL%3A+DR
Unlike. (n.d.). In Dictionary.Cambridge.org dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/unlike
Van Geert, P. (2008). The dynamic systems approach in the study of L1 and L2 acquisition: An introduction. The Modern Language Journal, 92(2), 179-199. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2008.00713.x
VanPatten, B., & Williams, J. (Eds.) (2015). Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Van Lier, L. (2000). From input to affordance: Social-interactive learning from an ecological perspective. In J. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural theory and second language learning (pp. 245–259). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press
Viral. (n.d.). In Dictionary.Cambridge.org dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/viral
WFH. (n.d.). In Dictionary.Cambridge.org dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/wfh?q=WFH
World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses
YOLO. (n.d.). In Dictionary.Cambridge.org dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/yolo
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Hilal Peker, Özkan Akkaya
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.