Exploring Source Use, Discourse Features and Their Relation to Proficiency in Source-based Writing Assessment in a Turkish EAP Context

Authors

  • Ayla YalçınDuman Ozyegin University
  • Aslı Lidice Göktürk Sağlam Ozyegin University

Keywords:

reading-to-writing assessment , source based learning, proficiency, discourse features, fluency, appropriateness, lexical sophistication, textual borrowing

Abstract

Source-based writing, using content from reading texts into writing, constitutes a prominent aspect of academic writing. Both research and classroom practice have demonstrated that effective use of sources poses challenges for undergraduate students in second language (L2) writing instruction. In acknowledgement of these challenges in writing from sources, this study aims to explore discourse features of writing in an integrated writing exam conducted in a Turkish university context to fulfil a university examination requirement for EFL learners. Having taken a credit bearing English for Academic Purposes (EAP) writing course, students completed the source-based assessment task, which requires them to compose an argumentative essay by integrating relevant information from the given texts. Twenty essays were graded and categorized into 3 levels of proficiency. The essays were analysed in terms of discourse features including lexical sophistication, fluency, source use (amount and type of source borrowing) and meaning construction (appropriateness). The Kruscall-Wallis test was conducted to determine the relation between proficiency levels and discourse features of students’ writing. A significant difference was found regarding the relation between proficiency and appropriacy of source-use across levels. The study has implications for pedagogy to enhance academic literacy and citation practices and source use of L2 university students as well as for integrated writing assessment.

References

Ascención, Y. (2005). Validation of reading-to-write assessment tasks performed by second
language learners. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Flagstaff, NM: Northern Arizona University.
Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Campbell, C. (1990). Writing with others’ word: using background reading text in academic compositions. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 211–230). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cumming, A., Kantor, R., Baba, K., Erdosy, U., Eouanzoui, K., & James, M. (2005).
Differences in written discourse in independent and integrated prototype tasks for next generation TOEFL. Assessing Writing, 10(1), 5–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2005.02.001
Currie, P. (1998). Staying out of trouble: Apparent plagiarism and academic survival. Journal
of Second Language Writing, 7(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(98)90003-0
Esmaeili, H. (2002). Reading-to-write reading and writing tasks and ESL students’ reading
and writing performance in an English language test. Canadian Modern Language
Review, 58, 599–622.
Gebril, A. (2009). Score generalizability of academic writing tasks: Does one test method fit
it all? Journal of Language Testing, 26 (2009), pp. 507-531. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532209340188
Gebril, A. & Plakans, L. (2013). Toward a Transparent Construct of Reading-to-Write Tasks:
The Interface Between Discourse Features and Proficiency, Language Assessment Quarterly, 10(1), 9-27, https://doi.org/10.1080/15434303.2011.642040
Grabe, W. (2003). Exploring the dynamics of second language writing. In Brabara Kroll
(Eds.), Exploring the Dynamics of Second Language Writing (pp.242-262). Cambridge University Press
Hirvela, A., & Du, Q. (2013). Why am I paraphrasing? Undergraduate ESL writers’ engagement with source-based academic writing and reading. Journal of English for
Academic Purposes, 12, 87–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2012.11.005
Howard, R. M., T. Serviss & T. K. Rodrigue (2010). Writing from sources, writing from sentences.Writing and Pedagogy, 2(2), 177–192.
Hyland, K. (2005). Representing readers in writing: Student and expert practices. Linguistics and Education, 16, 363–377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2006.05.002
Hyland, T. A. (2009). Drawing a line in the sand: Identifying the borderline between self and
other in EL1 and EL2 citation practices. Assessing Writing, 14, 62–74.
Johns, A. M., & Mayes, P. (1990). An analysis of summary protocols of university ESL
students. Applied Linguistics, 11, 253–271.
Keck, C. (2014). Copying, paraphrasing, and academic writing development: A re-examination of L1 and L2 summarization practices. Journal of Second Language Writing, 25, 4–22.
Kirkland, M.R, & Saunders, M.A. (1991). Maximizing Student Performance in Summary
Writing: Managing Cognitive Load. TESOL Quarterly, 5(1), 105-121.
Leki, I., Carson, J. (1997). Completely different worlds: EAP and the writing experiences of
ESL students in university courses. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 36–69. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587974
Mansourizadeh, K., & Ahmad, U. K. (2011). Citation practices among non-native expert and novice scientific writers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10, 152–161.
McCulloch, S. (2012). Citations in search of a purpose: Source use and authorial voice in L2 student writing. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 8, 55–69.
Pecorari, D. (2003). Good and original: Plagiarism and patchwriting in academic second language writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 317–345.
Pecorari, D., & Petrić, B. (2014). Plagiarism in second-language writing. Language Teaching, 47, 269–302.
Pennycook, A. (1996). Borrowing others’ words: Text, ownership, memory and plagiarism.
TESOL Quarterly, 30(2), 201–239. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588141
Petrić, B. (2007). Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master’s theses.
Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6, 238–253.
Petric, B. & N. Harwood (2013). Task requirements, task representation, and self-reported
citation functions: An exploratory study of a successful L2 student’s writing. Journal
of English for Academic Purposes, 12(2), 104–124.
Plakans, L. (2008). Comparing composing processes in writing-only and reading-to-write test
tasks. Assessing Writing, 13, 111–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2008.07.001
Plakans, L. (2009a). The role of reading strategies in integrated L2 writing tasks. Journal of
English for Academic Purposes, 8, 252–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2009.05.001
Plakans, L. (2009b). Discourse synthesis in integrated second language writing assessment.
Language Testing, 26, 561–587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265532209340192
Plakans, L. (2010). Independent vs. integrated writing tasks: A comparison of task
representation. TESOL Quarterly, 44, 185–194. https://doi.org/10.5054/tq.2010.215251
Plakans, L., & Gebril, A. (2012). A close investigation into source use in integrated second
language writing tasks. Assessing Writing, 17, 18–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2011.09.002
Plakans, L. & Gebril, A. (2013). Using multiple texts in an integrated writing assessment:
Source text use as a predictor of score. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22, 217-230.
Plakans, L., & Gebril, A. (2017). Exploring the relationship of organization and connection
with scores in integrated writing assessment. Assessing Writing, 31, 98-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.08.005
Plakans, L., Gebril, A., & Bilki, Z. (2019). Shaping a score: Complexity, accuracy, and
fluency in integrated writing performances. Language Testing, 36(2), 161–179. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532216669537

Shi, L. (2004). Textual borrowing in second-language writing. Written Communication,
21(2), 171–200. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088303262846
Shi, L. (2006). Cultural backgrounds and textual appropriation. Language Awareness, 15,
264–282. https://doi.org/10.2167/la406.0
Shi, L. (2008): Shi, L. (2010). Textual appropriation and citing behaviours of university
undergraduates. Applied Linguistics, 31, 1–24.
Shi, L. (2010). Textual appropriation and citing behaviours of university undergraduates.
Applied Linguistics, 31, 1–24.
Shin, S. & Ewert, D. (2015). What accounts for integrated reading-to-write task scores?
Language Testing, 32(2), 259–281. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532214560257
Spivey, N. N. (1984). Discourse synthesis: Constructing texts in reading and writing.
Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Stockall, N. & Cole, C.V. (2016) Hidden voices: L2 students’ compensatory writing
strategies, Teaching in Higher Education, 21:3, 344-357.
Thompson, C. (2005). ‘Authority is everything’: a study of the politics of textual ownership
and knowledge in the formation of student writer identities. International Journal for
Educational Integrity, 1, 1–12.
Thompson, C., Morton, J., & Storch, N. (2013). Where from, who, why and how? A study of
the use of sources by first year L2 university students. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 12, 99–109.
Weigle, S. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weigle, S. (2004). Integrating reading and writing in a competency test for non-native
speakers of English. Assessing Writing, 9, 27–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2004.01.002
Weigle, S. & Parker (2012). Source text borrowing in a reading/writing assessment. Journal
of Second Language Writing, 21, 118-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.03.004
Wette, R. (2010). Evaluating student learning in a university-level EAP unit on writing using
sources. Journal of Second Language Writing, 19, 158–177.
Wette, R. (2017). Source text use by undergraduate post-novice L2 writers in disciplinary
assignments: Progress and ongoing challenges. Journal of Second Language Writing, 37, 46-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2017.05.015
Wette, R. (2018). Source-based writing in a health sciences essay: Year 1 students'
perceptions, abilities and strategies. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 36,
61-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2018.09.006
Yang, H.C. (2009). Exploring the complexity of second language writers’ strategy use and
performance on an integrated writing test through SEM and qualitative approaches. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Texas at Austin, TX.
Zhang, X. (2017). Reading-writing integrated tasks, comprehensive corrective feedback, and
EFL writing development. Language Teaching Research, 21(2), 217-240. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168815623291

Downloads

Published

2020-06-30

How to Cite

YalçınDuman, A., & Göktürk Sağlam, A. L. . (2020). Exploring Source Use, Discourse Features and Their Relation to Proficiency in Source-based Writing Assessment in a Turkish EAP Context. Journal of Narrative and Language Studies, 8(14), 112-129. Retrieved from http://nalans.com/nalans/article/view/219

Issue

Section

Articles