Language Shift and Maintenance in a Diglossia Environment with Its Educational Implications: A Case Study

  • Mustafa Kerem Kobul Karadeniz Technical University
Keywords: Bilingualism, diglossia, language contact, identity, bilingual education

Abstract

The study sheds light on some fundamental sociolinguistic concepts such as bilingualism and diglossia, language shift and language maintenance with particular reference to the Amish context. After depicting a general picture of the Amish society, the study expands on bilingualism and diglossia in the Amish community. The factors that cause language maintenance and language shift/lossare discussed in detail under the light of relevant literature. Based upon Conklin and Lourie’s (1983) comprehensive taxonomy of factors affecting language maintenance and language shift, “Amish Pennsylvania German” is evaluated. Further reasons for the long survival of the Amish society are discussed. The last section is particularly allocated to “How could the Amish society succeed in maintaining their language and identity?” By and large, current findings substantiate that along with their tremendous efforts to isolate themselves from the outer English speaking world, the diglossia situation has helped the Amish to protect their language and identity without exposure to language shift in the midst of their bilingual environment.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Alshumaimeri, Y. (2011). The effects of reading method on the comprehension performance of Saudi EFL students. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(1), 185-195.
Baugh, J. (2011). Power, social diversity and language. In R.Mesthrie (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of sociolinguistics (pp. 17–28). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (3rd Ed.). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Cates, J., & Graham, L. (2002). Psychological assessment of the Old Order Amish: Unraveling the enigma. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33, 155–161.
Chambers, J. K. (2002). Patterns of variation including change. In J. K. Chambers, P. Trudgill, and N. Schilling-Estes (Eds), The handbook of language variation and change (pp. 349–372). Malden and Oxford: Blackwell.
Conklin, N. F., & Lourie, M. A. (1983). A host of tongues: Language communities in the United States. Free Press.
Coulmas, F. (1998). The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Deumert, A., & Vandenbussche, W. (2003a). Research directions in the study of language standardization. In A. Deumert and W. Vandenbussche (Eds.), Germanic Standardization: Past to Present (pp. 455-470). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Deumert, A., & Vandenbussche, W (2003b). Standard languages. Taxonomies and histories. In A. Deumert and W. Vandenbussche (Eds.), Germanic Standardization: Past to Present (pp. 1-14). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Finegan, E. (1998). Sociolinguistics and the law. In F. Coulmas (Ed.), The handbook of sociolinguistics (pp. 421-435). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Ferguson, C. A. (1959). Diglossia. Word, 15(2), 325-340.
Fishman, J. (1972). Language and nationism: Two integrative essays. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Fishman, J. (1986). Bilingualism and separatism. Annals of the American Association of Political and Social Science, 487, 169-180.
Fishman, A. (1988). Amish literacy: What and how it means. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman.
Foster, P. & Purves, A. (1996). Literacy and society with particular reference to the non-western world. In R. Barr, M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research Vol II (pp. 26-45). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Frey, J. W. (1945). Amish 'Triple-Talk'. American Speech, 20(2), 85-98.
Fuller, J. M. (1999). The Role of English in Pennsylvania German Development: Best Supporting Actress? American Speech, 74(1), 38-55.
García, R. L., & Diaz, C. F. (1992). The status and use of Spanish and English among Hispanic youth in Dade County (Miami) Florida: A sociolinguistic study, 1989–1991. Language and Education, 6(1), 13-32.
Goodman, K. S. (1967). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. Literacy Research and Instruction, 6(4), 126-135.
Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R. B. (1986). Science, technology, language, and information: Implications for language and language-in-education planning. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 59, 47-72.
Harrison, K. D. (2008). When languages die: The extinction of the world's languages and the erosion of human knowledge. Oxford University Press.
Haugen, E. (1972). The ecology of language. In A. Dil (Ed.), The Ecology of Language: Essays by Einar Haugen. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Hostetler, J. A. (1993). Amish society (4th Ed.). London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Hostetler, J. A., & Huntington, G. E. (1971). Children in Amish society: Socialization and community education. Holt Rinehart & Winston.
Hostetler, J. A., Huntington, G. E., & Hostetler, J. A. (1992). Amish children: Education in the family, school, and community. Fort Worth, [Tex.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Huffines, M. L. (1997). Language contact and the Amish. In J. R. Dow & M. Wolff (Eds.), Languages and lives. Essays in honor of Werner Enninger (pp. 53-66). New York: Peter Lang.
Hurst, C. E., & McConnell, D. L. (2010). An Amish paradox: Diversity and change in the world's largest Amish Community. John Hopkins University Press.
Hyland, K. (2006). English for Academic Purposes: An advanced Resource Book. New York: Routledge.
Johnson-Weiner, K. M. (1997). Reinforcing a separate Amish identity: English instruction and the preservation of culture in old order Amish schools. In J.R. Dow & M. Wolff (Eds.), Languages and lives. Essays in honor of Werner Enninger (pp. 67-78). New York: Peter Lang. 67-79.
Knabb, J. J. & Vogt, R. G. (2011). Assessing old order Amish outpatients with the MCMI–III. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93(3), 290–299.
Knabb, J. J., Vogt, R. G., & Newgren, K. P. (2011). MMPI-2 characteristics of the old order Amish: A comparison of clinical, nonclinical, and United States normative samples. Psychological Assessment, 23, 865-875.
Kraybill, D. (2001). The riddle of Amish culture. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Kraybill, D., & Nolt, S. (1994). The rise of microenterprises. In D. Kraybill& M. Olshan (Eds.), The Amish struggle with modernity (pp. 149–163). London, England: University Press of New England.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2011). Key concepts in language learning and language education. In J.
Simpson (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics (pp. 155-170). Routledge.
Lightbown, P. M. & Spada, N. (2001). Factors affecting second language learning. In Candlin, C. N. & Mercer, N. (Eds.), English language teaching in its social context. London: Routledge.
Louden, M. L. (1997). Linguistic structure and sociolinguistic identity in Pennsylvania German society. In J. R. Dow & M. Wolff (Eds.), Languages and lives. Essays in honor of Werner Enninger (pp. 79-91). New York: Peter Lang. 79-91.
McKay, S. L. (2005). Sociolinguistics and second language learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language learning and teaching (pp. 281-300). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
McKay, S. L. & Rubdy, R (2009). The social and sociolinguistic contexts of language learning and teaching. In Long, M. H. & Doughty, C. J. (Eds.), The handbook of language teaching. New York: Routledge.
Mesthrie, R., Swann, J., Deumert, A.& Leap, W. L. (2009). Introducing sociolinguistics. Edinburgh University Press.
Milroy, L. (2004). Social networks. In J. K. Chambers, P. Trudgill& N. SchillingEstes (Eds.), The handbook of language variation and change (pp. 549–572). Oxford: Blackwell.
Myers-Scotton, C. (1988). Code-switching and types of multilingual communities. In F. Coulmas (ed.), The Handbook of Sociolinguistics (pp. 61-79). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Nevalainen, T. (2003). English. In A Deumert & W Vandenbussche (Eds), Germanic standardizations: Past to present. Impact: Studies in Language and Society (pp. 127-156). Amsterdam/Philadephia: John Benjamins.
Omoniyi, T. (2010). Language and postcolonial identities: an African perspective. In C. Llamas and D. Watt (Eds), Language and identities (pp. 237-246). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Ottósson, K. G. (1987). An archaising aspect of Icelandic purism: the revival of extinct morphological patterns. In Lilius and M. Saari (Eds), The Nordic Languages and Modern Linguistics 6, (pp. 311–24). Helsinki: Helsinki University Press.
Paulston, C. B. (1994). Linguistic Minorities in Multilingual Settings. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Pavlenko, A. (2008). Multilingualism in post-Soviet countries: Language revival, language removal, and sociolinguistic theory. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11(3), 275-314.
Roberge, P. T. (2003). Afrikaans.InDeumert, A & W. Vandenbussche (Eds.) Germanic standardizations (pp. 15-40). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Romaine, S. (2002). Can stable diglossia help to preserve endangered languages.International journal of the Sociology of Language, 157(1), 135-140.
Richards, J. C. & Schmidt, R. (2013). Dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics (3rd ed.). London: Pearson Education Limited.
Sankoff, G. (2002). Linguistic Outcomes of Language Contact.In Peter Trudgill, J. Chambers & N. Schilling-Estes, Eds., Handbook of sociolinguistics. (pp. 638-668). Oxford: Blackwell.
Seidlhofer, B. (2005). English as a lingua franca. ELT Journal, 59(4), 339-341.
Snyder, I. (2002). Silicon literacies: Communication, innovation and education in the electronic age. Psychology Press.
Stern, H. H. (1991). Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stinner, D. H., Paoletti, M. G., & Stinner, B. R. (1989). In search of traditional farm wisdom for a more sustainable agriculture: A study of Amish farming and society. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 27(1-4), 77-90.
Stuart-Smith, J., & Timmins, C. (2010). The role of the individual in language variation and change. In C. Llamas and D. Watt (Eds). Language and identities (pp. 39-54). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Tharp, B. M. (2007). Valued Amish possessions: Expanding material culture and consumption. The Journal of American Culture, 30, 38-55.
Thomas, L. (1996). Language as Power: A Linguistic Critique of U. S. English. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 129-140.
Warschauer, M. (2004). Technological change and the future of CALL. In S. Fotos & C. Brown (Eds.), New perspectives on CALL for second and foreign language classrooms (pp. 15-25). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Warschauer, M., Said, G. R. E., & Zohry, A. G. (2002). Language choice online: Globalization and identity in Egypt. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 7(4), 160-172. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2002.tb00157.x
Published
2016-12-28
How to Cite
Kobul, M. K. (2016). Language Shift and Maintenance in a Diglossia Environment with Its Educational Implications: A Case Study. Journal of Narrative and Language Studies, 4(7), 1-16. Retrieved from http://nalans.com/index.php/nalans/article/view/58
Section
Articles