Reading Ahmad Mahmoud’s ‘The Neighbors’ as a Subaltern Narrative
The present study examines the Iranian novelist Ahmad Mahmoud’s The Neighbors in the light of Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s concept of Subaltern. Reading the novel as a subaltern narrative, our essay investigates the main characters’ experience of subalternity as well as their survival in the light of the resistance of the committed intellectuals. In his narrative, Mahmoud depicts a society where intellectuals play a major role in resisting colonization despite the fact that they have different understandings and expectations about their society. Affected by the cultural and economic pressures foisted on them by the colonizer and colonized and their relationship, the central characters undergo hard times until they either leave their country or become imprisoned. Understanding the circumstances and necessities of their society, some intellectuals are able to help the common people out of trouble. The intellectuals who prefer to leave the country have to go under the processes of Othering and Worlding. This essay, therefore, tries to show how Mahmoud’s novel provides a third space through which the Subaltern can speak and transform the conditions of impossibility, hopelessness and negative feelings into the Subaltern and marginalize them into possibility.
Ashcroft, Bill et al. Key Concepts in Postcolonial Studies. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print.
---. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Postcolonial Literature. London and New York: Routledge, 1989. Print.
Bertens, Hans. Literary Theory; the Basics. New York: Routledge, 2001. Print.
Castle, Gregory. The Blackwell Guide to Literary Theory. Singapore: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. PDF.
Chanter, Tina. Gender: Key Concept in Philosophy. London: Continuum.2006. PDF.
Chaturvedi, Vinayak. Mapping Subaltern Studies and the Postcolonial. London: Verso, 2000.Print.
Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology. Translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1997.PDF.
Gandhi, Leela. Postcolonial Theory: A Critical Introduction. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1998. Print.
Habib, M.A.R. A History of Literary Criticism and Theory: From Plato to the Present. Oxford: Blackwell, 2005. Print.
Harasym, Sarah. The Postcolonial Critic: Interview, Strategies, dialogues. London: Routledge, 1990. Print.
Landry, Donna. The Spivak Reader. New York: Routledge, 1996. Print.
Lane, Richard. Fifty Key Literary Theorists. New York: Routledge, 2006.Print.
Loomba, Ania. Colonialism/ Post colonialism. London: Routledge, 1998. PDF.
Lopez, Alfred. Postcolonial Whiteness: A Critical Reader on Race and Empire. New York: University of New York Press, 2005. PDF.
Macey, David. The Dictionary of Critical Theory. London: Penguin Books, 2000. PDF.
Mcleod, John. The Routledge Companion to Postcolonial Studies. New York: Routledge, 2002. PDF.
Morton, Stephen. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. London and New York: Routledge, 2003. Print.
Ray, Sangeeta. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak: In Other Words. India: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Print.
Said, Edward. Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient. London: Penguin, 1978. Print.
---. The World, the Text, the Critic. London: Penguin, 1983. Print.
Sandres, Mark. Gayatri Chakravotry Spivak: Live Theory. New York: Methen, 2005. Print.
Selden, Raman. A reader’s guide to contemporary literary theory. London: Longman, 2005. Print.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. In Other Worlds. New York: Methen, 1987. Print.
“ .---Three Women̕ s Text and a Critique of Imperialism”. Post colonialism Critical Concepts. Ed. Diana Brydon. New York: Routledge, 2000. Print.
.--- A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Towards a History of the Vanishing Present. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999. Print.
---. Selected Subaltern Studies. New York: Oxford, 1988. Print.
Wisker, Gino. Key Concepts in Postcolonial Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Print.
Wolfreys, Julian. Introducing Literary Theories. Edinburgh: Edinbrgh University Press, 2001. Print.
Young, Robert. Post colonialism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University, 2003. Print.
---. White Mythologies Writing History and the West. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2004. Print.